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The group of winter calendar songs consists of carols and Christmas songs. These are majestic songs of Ukrainian farmers, related to the Proto-Slavic cult of the Sun. The ancestors of Ukrainians celebrated three phases of the sun - spring equinox, summer and winter solstice. The New Year began for the ancient Slavs from the vernal equinox (as, after all, in other European nations). Only later, the celebration of the beginning of the new year was moved to the time of the winter solstice (somewhere from the 14th century). There is a hypothesis that the very name of the holiday - "carol" - and the songs - "carols" comes from the name of the New Year in Ancient Rome (Calendae lanuarie), which indicates close contacts of Ukrainian-Slavic culture with Greco-Roman in pre-Christian times. In Ukrainian folklore, a peculiar "memory" of the spring New Year's ritual is the spring theme of many carols and Christmas carols. For example, F. Koless believes that the authentic name of the winter majestic songs in Ukrainian territory was actually "carols". Already in the 19th century, significant differences between carols and Christmas carols in terms of subject matter actually disappeared (V. Hnatiuk).
As soon as Zorya rose in the sky, carolers went from house to house to inform people about the birth of the new Sun, and the image of this sun was carried with them ("Christmas star"). This tradition has survived to this day. They went into the yard, woke up the owner and sang majestic songs about the sun, moon, and stars to his family. These songs came to be called carols or carols.
A week after Kolyada (Christmas) on December 31 (according to the Russian Orthodox Church) or January 13 (according to the Russian Orthodox Church), the Generous Evening was celebrated, timed to meet the New Year.